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RIVER LIFE

About Patrick Nunnally

As the coordinator for the University of Minnesota’s River Life program, Pat Nunnally works to establish lasting relationships among the University of Minnesota and groups working on river sustainability. In the past two decades, Nunnally has developed a unique practice as a consulting historian, communications manager and interpretive planner, with a focus on rivers, trails and scenic byways. He has organized events and conferences with a Mississippi River connection, and has presented his work at numerous academic and professional meetings. He’s also worked with public agencies and private firms on many planning projects for culturally sensitive sites. Nunnally’s writings have appeared in a variety of forms, including the ongoing blog River Talk. His latest published piece is a short reflection on the importance of diverse stories in shaping an inclusive future for the Mississippi River. The City, the River, the Bridge, an edited collection of essays examining the consequences and aftermath of the I-35W bridge collapse, will appear in January 2011. Since 1999, Nunnally has served on the U of M faculty, teaching classes in landscape planning and urban studies. He holds graduate degrees in English, American studies and landscape architecture from Vanderbilt University, the University of Iowa and the University of Minnesota.

Ten Years Ago: Disaster Brought World’s Attention to New Orleans

Ten years ago, at about 9:45 am CDT on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana.  The state, the region, the Mississippi River, indeed the nation will never be the same.

Hundreds of articles, blog posts, newspaper and television stories are marking the 10 year anniversary of the storm.  For the next 2-4 weeks, this blog will make note of some of the key themes, arguments, perspectives and voices being heard.  What have we learned? What has changed? For whom?  The responses get at the heart of contemporary understandings of community, water, people, and the relations among those components of our world.

To begin, we link to an article by Richard Campanella, a geographer, author, and teacher whose work really should be the starting point for any exploration of New Orleans that encompasses needing to know the physical dimensions of the city.  Campanella’s web page includes his Twitter name (follow him–he’s fantastically thoughtful and well informed) and generously includes downloadable copies of much of his writing.

Here is Campanella’s exploration of the “Katrina lexicon,” “how we talk about a disaster so monumental we can’t agree on what to call it.”  As usual, he gets to the heart of the matter–Katrina and its impact are so enormous that we can’t decide what it really is, was, or means.

In a series of posts over the next few weeks, though, we’ll share some of the stronger efforts to understand Katrina with you.  The storm and its aftermath are simply too important not to explore, however challenging and painful said exploration may be.

In Search of Secret River History

This blog post was written by River Life staff member Maria Lee, whose work is supported by a grant from the Mississippi River Network.

 

What would you do with a houseboat the size of an office cubicle? Well, if you’re itinerant artist and general river enthusiast, Wes Modes, you embark on a multi-month journey down the Mississippi River. We had the pleasure of meeting Wes at the first River City Revue of the summer. Wes and his trusty companion, Hazel the Dog, welcomed us aboard the boat. The boat can more or less comfortably seat four by squeezing in a worn leather love seat and two chairs at an abbreviated dining table. Storybooks and jars of spices lined the shelves on the walls. A few people were lounging in the small space, sipping drinks out of jars, and taking in the smell of whatever tasty-smelling concoction was sizzling on the two-burner stove. Hanging out with Wes and his boat was exactly how I imagined encountering Huckleberry Finn and his raft would have been if I lived in a Mark Twain novel. The term, ‘Non-conventional’ only starts to cover the Wes experience. Shoeless and shaggy-haired, Wes radiates a boyish honesty that invites both trouble and trust. His journey down the river will undoubtedly be filled with both as this is more than just a man fulfilling Twain-inspired boyhood dreams of floating down the river; a story collecting effort will propel his boat downriver.

A Secret History of American River People, the title of Wes’ project, attempts to explore the stories of people who live and work on the river. He hopes his project will, “encourage an awareness of issues facing current river communities, the long history of people who have lived on and adjacent to the river, and an understanding of river ecology.” Wes paradoxically uses the archetype river journey as the method to explore unheard stories of the Mississippi River. In Minnesota, he’s already delved into the river stories of communities of color and non-dominant culture. Wes shared with us that he finds stories important because they allow us to begin to know and understand experiences outside of our own.

I, personally, love the idea of ‘Secret Histories’ as there are many communities whose experiences and stories with the river are still secondary narratives and not emblematic of the Mississippi River. The Mississippi River feeds lifestyles that vary as much as the landscapes it passes through; the few stories that are championed as the narrative of the Mississippi River do not do this diversity justice. A teacher once told me—it is imperative that we tell our own stories. Otherwise, someone else will tell them for you, or worse, won’t tell them at all. Wes’ river journey is a decisive move to ensure that all communities have a place for their stories. What’s your river story? Tell us about it or tell a friend this week! Also, don’t forget to follow Wes and his journey on his blog!

New Visions for the Mississippi River Gorge: That Didn’t Take Long, Did It?

On Sunday, five days after the closing of the Upper St. Anthony Falls lock, the Minneapolis Star-Tribune ran a commentary piece inviting readers to imagine a “wilder future” for the Mississippi River gorge.  Illustrated with evocative drawings, the argument proposes that a “wild” Mississippi River restoration might make economic sense, make the area an even more distinctive destination, and keep invasive aquatic species such as carp at bay.

Well, maybe.  And, of course, maybe not.  It’s simply too early to tell what would be feasible, what the costs would be, what the benefits would be, and who would actually receive those benefits.  The idea is worth a look, though, and worth very careful analysis and study.  It’s not sufficient any more to say “we can’t think about restoration in the gorge because of the commercial navigation requirements there.”  The commercial navigation is gone; the question now is “What should the future gorge be?”

People seriously interested in this question should start with this report, by University of Minnesota scientist Chris Lenhart.  Lenhart’s study provides a necessary first scan at some of the key scientific questions that will need answers before the sort of system manipulation that is envisioned can take place.  What, for example, should be done with the million cubic yards of sediment (more or less) trapped behind the Ford Dam?

It’s fun to envision a Mississippi river gorge full of swirling whitewater.  That vision is closer now than it was two years ago.  If the vision of a “wilder future” is to gain any traction toward becoming real, then the conversations should be careful, intentional, and starting soon.

Upper St. Anthony Lock Closes: a Momentous Occasion

Since 1963 industrial and recreational river traffic has been able to bypass St. Anthony Falls, passing through a lock managed by the Corps of Engineers and opening the river stretch above the falls to commercial navigation.  The area, already heavily industrial in its land use since the mid 19th century, adapted development patterns to a variety of uses that took advantage of the river’s navigation capacity.

The lock never really carried as much traffic as anticipated, though, and the looming threat of invasive carp coming from downriver and potentially infecting northern Minnesota waters led to the formal closing of the lock this week.  As of midnight, Wednesday June 10, the lock will no longer open for regular traffic.

No one really knows what’s next, although as usual opinions are many and varied.  Representatives of the navigation industry point out that the material they carry has to get above the falls somehow, and predict thousands of extra trucks on Twin Cities roadways.  Advocates for environmental restoration applaud the closing as an important step in the continued revitalization of the urban river.  Staff at several local, state, and federal agencies are planning the future use of at least part of the facility.  A state commission has funded a study (which includes participation from River Life) into the ecological and hydrological impacts of the closure.

While the closing itself is significant–any action that “undoes” a 50 year pattern has to be seen as such–we don’t yet know if it is historic.  To me, if the lock closes and nothing much else happens, then this won’t turn out to be a very historic shift.  Time will tell.

In the meantime, there are two essential sources of information to be consulted.

This map and flyer from the MN Department of Natural Resources advises recreational boaters (i.e. canoes and kayaks) on how to get around the falls.  Vital safety tips.

Minnesota Public Radio continues to demonstrate the great potential of digital journalism with this very rich piece about the lock, how it works, its history, and why invasive carp are a sufficient threat to warrant closing.  This piece is an essential first step for people wanting to learn about the issue.

Stay tuned: I’m sure we’ll have more to say in the weeks and months ahead.

Healing, Place, Water: Three Concepts that Fit

I was fortunate to be at a remarkable event last week, the first All Partners” gathering of the Healing Place Collaborative (HPC).  HPC is a Native-artist led initiative, but the participants are not all Native, nor are they all artists.  Instead, it seems that the common thread connecting all of us is a commitment to the multiple possibilities contained in the terms Healing, Place, and Water.

Put those terms together in varying combinations: We heal places; places heal us.  Water is healing, and also needs to be healed.  Places are defined by water, but also define the context that surrounds water.  Many possibilities; not soon exhausted.

I hesitate to start listing and naming individuals and organizations that were participating, for fear of leaving someone out and diminishing the richness of the ideas.  Go to the web site, follow the “About” link, and you’ll find an impressive array of talent, mission, and experience.  And that doesn’t even include everyone who participated last week!  Browse around the site; you’ll find lots to reflect on.

You’ll hear more from us about the HPC group; this is one of the most promising collective initiatives taking place that I know of.

But you won’t hear more from us for a while; we’re taking a break for a bit.  The campus is quiet with most students and nearly all faculty off doing other things.  We’ll be here most of the summer, and may post occasionally when there is something that particularly strikes us.  We’ll continue to be active on Twitter using @RiverLifeUMN.  More regular postings will resume after Labor Day.

Enjoy your summer–get out on the River!

 

“The River Is Our Future” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

May 29, 2015Patrick NunnallyEvents, Guest PostsComments Off on “The River Is Our Future” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

Last month we convened a symposium, “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change.”  Video coverage of the sessions is available here  and additional material is on the web site of the Institute for Advanced Study  as well.

The chairs of the various sessions during the symposium have written blog posts about their session, posts which we will run for consecutive days this week. This post is written by Jane Mazack, one of the two Graduate Fellows of the Sawyer Seminar.

As an aquatic ecologist, my work is based in the physicality of rivers. My field-collected data  quantify invertebrate communities, trout populations, and thermal patterns. But my work as a 2014-15 John E. Sawyer Seminar Graduate Fellow at the University of Minnesota has encouraged me to think beyond the quantitative. My research, while ecologically important, finds much of its broader significance in its context of climate change, its dissemination to the community, and its inclusion in broader narratives. My work with the seminar has made me reconsider the ways in which scientific knowledge is disseminated to and discussed with the broader public.

As part of the recent symposium “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change,” I moderated the final panel discussion, “River as Future.” Much of scientific research looking to the future is contextualized in the fact that climate changes will change the physicality of the river itself. However, this concluding panel looked beyond the physicality of the river to the narratives we tell, the relationships we are a part of, and the decisions that we make. The work of the symposium, and that of the year-long Sawyer Seminar, has been rooted in the premise that our narratives of the river must change along with the changing climate.

The four speakers on this final panel provided diverse perspectives on how we consider the future of the river. John Anfinson, Superintendent of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, emphasized the key roles of triggers and rupture points in facilitating new thinking and management on the river. Kat Hayes, Associate Professor in Anthropology, considered plans for the future as necessarily drawing on a broad archive of knowledge. Pat Nunnally, director of RiverLife, proposed that “River as Future” would be better stated as “The River is Our Future.” Kate Brauman, scientist at the Institute on the Environment, looked at the river under the lenses of equilibrium, flux, and transience. But despite the diversity in backgrounds and discussions, one thread was common to the thoughts of each panelist: the future of the river depends on us. Collaboration, inclusivity, and a multi-faceted understanding of the river will be essential to its future.

If you weren’t able to attend the symposium, I hope you will take the time to watch the video of this panel and discussion and join in our ongoing conversations. The river is our future. What future do we want to see?

Video of the full session is available here.  Scroll down the page until you get to the session you are looking for.

On Science and the Past, with a Nod to Davy Crockett: A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

May 29, 2015Patrick NunnallyEventsComments Off on On Science and the Past, with a Nod to Davy Crockett: A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

Some tales about the Mississippi River region are well known and are true, some are well known and are fiction, and some of the most important are true, and have been well known but are barely remembered.

Conevery Bolton Valencius, a historian of science from the University of Massachusetts, Boston, presented an entertaining and informative talk about the last kind of tale: the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-12. Her talk kicked off the final day of the “Once and Future River” symposium by asking us to think about what we know, what we think we know, and what difference the difference makes.

To begin at the beginning, the New Madrid earthquakes violently rearranged the landscape of the river corridor south of the junction with the Ohio.  Not only were trees flattened for miles, and the river and its lakes and tributaries reordered, but nascent settlement patterns on the frontier of white settlement were disrupted as well.  New Madrid went from being a thriving regional trade center with many economic interactions between native people and incoming whites to a backwater community.  Native people lost what foothold they had retained in the region and fled west.

Within a generation, the earthquakes, which had been felt as far away as Boston, remained so well known that Davy Crockett’s autobiography could include casual references to chasing bears down into the fissures in the ground left after the quakes.  But shortly after that, by the time of the Civil War, certainly, the earthquake history had all but disappeared.

Valencius argues that, in part, this was due to the press of other events.  Significant Civil War battles were fought along the Mississippi River in the immediate vicinity of the quakes.  But as is the case with most good history, there appear to be other elements at work as well.  As the region became more and more a rural “backwater” the accounts handed down through families and recorded in personal data collections such as probate records became less “scientific,” more “anecdotal.”  Throughout most of the 20th century, science was seen as the purview of men with instruments (and they were mostly men for the vast majority of the 20th century) conveying knowledge that was otherwise inaccessible.

This is in many ways the real story Valencius has to share: what counts as scientific knowledge, who creates that knowledge, what is discounted in this celebration of “scientific” knowledge, and who is discounted as their knowledge is marginalized?  That’s a lot of questions, but they may turn out to be among the central questions of our time.

For example, and this is a case that Valencius only alluded to, what are we to make of the debates about the “science”  concerning climate change?  Few any more doubt that climate change is real; the debates are over the causes and the actions that should be taken.  The consequences of these debates are enormous, and we should not be surprised at how the battle lines have been drawn and how fiercely they are contested.  Still, though, we can be taken aback when basic scientific facts, or, here’s the kicker, what we take for basic scientific facts, are so hotly disputed.  As the saying goes “You are entitled to your own opinion, but you are not entitled to your own facts.”

Valencius’ talk, available by scrolling down through this link, does what good scholarship ought to do: have us think in a new way about something we thought we understood.  It’s a bonus–for me at least–that the talk was presented so well and had the Mississippi at its core.

 

“Living with the River: the Once and Future Mississippi” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

Last month we convened a symposium, “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change.”  Video coverage of the sessions is available here  and additional material is on the web site of the Institute for Advanced Study as well.

The chairs of the various sessions during the symposium have written blog posts about their session, posts which we will run for consecutive days this week. This post is from Christopher Grenfell, an audience member at the “Thursdays at Four” session and undergraduate student in the Honors Seminar “Thursdays at Four.”

The session included three speakers plus a moderator, all speaking about “resilience” and the Mississippi River.  They were all interesting talks, although there was a lot of variation in what was said.

There is no question the Mississippi is in trouble.  Organisms dependent on the river slip closer to peril every day, as the gulf hypoxic zone grows to the size of Massachusetts.  At the same time, however, the Mississippi’s incredible biodiversity and resilience make it a champion among rivers.  No amount of damage to its ecosystem or flow will cause it to succumb.  It will always be here, but it will be different.

Rivers are absolutely essential to our survival.  Darlene St. Clair, a Native American studies professor at St. Cloud State University, talked about the Mississippi through a Dakota studies framework.  The Dakota define waterways as the lifeblood of mother Earth.  Through an ethic called “Mitakuye Owas’in,” roughly translated to “everything is my relative,” the Dakota feel a familial connection to the Mississippi and its ecosystem.  Our current society could learn a lot from this ethic, as we are just one of many species dependent on the river.  Unfortunately in today’s world it is impossible to study nature without studying human influence.  We are now the dominant source of change on Earth, and need to take responsibility.

Deborah Swackhamer, a professor of water resources and policy at the University of Minnesota, outlined three possible futures for the Mississippi.  The first was a bleak scenario where invasive carp dominate the river, water withdrawals reduce its flow, and recreation of any kind is impossible.  In this future we do nothing to stop the Mississippi’s decline, and it becomes merely a dumping ground for fertilizer and waste.  The second was a best-case scenario.  In this future the river supports a healthy and diverse fishery, it is possible to drink untreated water, and the gulf hypoxic zone ceases to exist.  Swackhamer was quick to point out that this scenario was a near impossibility, and offered her third scenario as the “future we can have.”  If we act now to reverse the damage we have caused, the Mississippi can support diverse life, its drinking water could be considered the best in the country, and the gulf dead zone could be reduced by 50%.

Pat Hamilton of the Science Museum of Minnesota addressed the Mississippi’s adaptive nature.  He defined resilience as the ability of a system to deliver goods and services while withstanding disruptive changes.  From this definition the Mississippi’s resilience is in trouble.  With an increase in pollution and invasive species, it will no longer be able to deliver, fish, drinking water, recreation, or transportation.  It will be viewed as the central United States dumping ground, transporting our waste to the sea.  He cited climate change as the Mississippi’s ultimate threat, and called upon world leaders to stem the growth of atmospheric pollutants that are contributing to global warming.

The Mississippi will exist long after we are gone.  But it is the state of its existence that determines our future.  Irreparable damage has already been done, however we can decide how much more has to occur.

Video of the session can be viewed here.

“From River as Image to River as Place” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

May 27, 2015Patrick NunnallyEvents, Guest PostsComments Off on “From River as Image to River as Place” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

Last month we convened a symposium, “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change.”  Video coverage of the sessions is available here and additional material is on the web site of the Institute for Advanced Study as well.

The chairs of the various sessions during the symposium have written blog posts about their session, posts which we will run for consecutive days this week.  The author of this post is Nenette Luarca-Shoaf, Postdoctoral Fellow of the Sawyer Seminar.

Art historians generally think about texts and objects much more than they do about place. We might analyze an artist’s process, the materials out of which something is made, and the meaning that is created by an artwork’s display and interpretation in various contexts. My work as the 2014-15 John E. Sawyer Seminar Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Minnesota has made it clear that the Mississippi has always been more than a line on a historical map or the setting for some of the most canonical paintings in American art. It has made me reconsider the ways in which the questions that I ask about nineteenth-century maps, paintings, and prints depicting the Mississippi River might be brought to bear on contemporary issues and be made to function within public life beyond the classroom or museum.

As part of the recent symposium “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change,” I chaired two panels: “River as Image” and “River as Place.” For the first, we screened Pare Lorentz’s 1938 New Deal film project, The River , an epic documentary about the deleterious effects of human agricultural and engineering efforts to shape the Mississippi. It was followed by five short videos curated by the Twin Cities-based art collaborative, Works Progress that are part of a project called Dear River.  Unlike the grand, sweeping narrative presented by Lorentz, the short films of Dear River tell a diverse set of narratives that invite viewers to reflect on their own personal, and often intimate, relationship with the Mississippi.

The organizers of the yearlong Mellon Sawyer Seminar have argued that the stories we tell about the river must necessarily change in an era of climate change. Much of what I research helped to create a largely celebratory and nationalist identity for the Mississippi River, one that is arguably still the dominant one in American culture. However, the speakers in the panel “River as Place” offered alternatives for understanding the river. Dr. Richard Mizelle’s project identifies limitations in traditional historical archives, exposing structures of power that silenced African American voices and dictated their movements during and after the 1927 Mississippi Flood. Through the Bdote Memory Map and Healing Place projects, Mona Smith and her collaborators weave together many voices to assert the centrality of indigenous history and belief to understanding Minnesota and the river. Shanai Matteson’s place-based, collaborative practice with Works Progress cuts across disciplinary and bureaucratic boundaries, uniting the modernist divide between art and science in taking an ecological approach to artmaking and community building.

I hope you will take the time to watch the video of this panel if you weren’t able to make it to the symposium. These projects reflect on the politics and ethics of studying a place where people continue to live and work, on which environmental crises have unfolded and will happen again, and where race, class, and power dictate access. They bring an awareness and understanding of the past but also provide models for how expression and creativity might be harnessed to tell the river’s stories in an uncertain future.

 

 

“River as Storied” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

May 26, 2015Patrick NunnallyUncategorizedComments Off on “River as Storied” A Post from the Sawyer Symposium

Last month we convened a symposium, “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change.”  Video coverage of the sessions is available here and additional material is on the web site of the Institute for Advanced Study  as well.

The chairs of the various sessions during the symposium have written blog posts about their session, posts which we will run for consecutive days this week.   The author of this post is Laurie Moberg, one of two Graduate Fellows of the John E. Sawyer Seminar.

We all tell stories: about our families, our pets, our vacations, our problems, our adventures, our experiences in the world. And we tell these stories for all sorts of reasons: to create connections to others, to inspire levity or gravity, to get advice or dispense it. These stories do more than report on our lives; through the stories we tell, we interpret and create our worlds.

In anthropology, this claim that we create the world in our words and stories is not a stretch. A key characteristic of the qualitative research process in anthropology is to listen to the stories people tell so that we might see the world in a new way through the narratives of others. This claim is also at the center of the work of the John E. Sawyer Seminar “Making the Mississippi: Formulating New Water Narratives” in the Institute for Advanced Study at the University of Minnesota this year. The year-long seminar has invited us to consider how our stories about the Mississippi River inflect not only our academic pursuits on campus, but the public and social lives of communities across the watershed. Citing the importance of narratives, the seminar explores the ways our varied stories have defined, changed, and entangled us with the Mississippi River and questions how we might collaboratively craft stories about and with the river to confront the uncertainties of global climate change into the future.

As a Graduate Fellow for the seminar, I had the pleasure of organizing and being a discussant for the panel “River as Frame” during the recent Sawyer Seminar Symposium “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi River in an Era of Climate Change.” While the symposium as a whole aggregated a diverse constellation of stories tied to the Mississippi, the presenters for this panel shared stories specifically to illustrate how we grapple with and define the Mississippi River given its immensity, variation, and material dynamism.

Based on her work with the Mississippi River Network, Jennifer Browning explained both the importance and complications of the River Citizens advocacy campaign; drawing people together across the incongruences of the watershed, the movement focuses on protecting the well-being of the river for the land, water, and people of the region despite differences of perspectives, experiences, and priorities. Encouraging all of us to become River Citizens and make a commitment to care for the Mississippi River no matter where we live, her story is one of collaboration, not only between varied human constituencies, but between people and the river as well.

Dr. Christopher Morris’ project demonstrates the limitations of historic scientific stories to engineer the Mississippi. As these scientific narratives centered on catchy words like “disturbance” or “equilibrium” gain the patina of expertise, they rationalize human behaviors toward the river. Yet Morris points out that our words to describe the river define our conduct toward it by constraining our imaginations and obscuring some of the river’s material capacities as well. His is a story of both human naïveté and hope: if our existing words prescribe the river inadequately, then perhaps different words can help us tell alternative stories that might remedy our limited and limiting understandings of the Mississippi.

Through both Dakota narratives with long oral histories and her own contemporary poetry, Dr. Gwen Westerman work invites us to see the river as a site of creation and to see ourselves as relatives of the natural world. Her story inspires us to reimagine the parameters of our relationships and responsibilities to the earth and to its other inhabitants, both human and nonhuman.

I encourage you to watch to the presentations in their entirety through the video recordings posted online. What I find most compelling from this panel is that each of the presentations demonstrates the power and importance of stories to design particular kinds of relationships with the Mississippi. Because of the immensity of the Mississippi River and the varied ways it is integrated into people’s lives – politically, socially, and physically – stories of the Mississippi are necessarily multiple and varied. Yet all these stories have real effects on the material and social world. The stories we tell about the Mississippi River are one way in which we embed the material world of the river into our social worlds. Our challenge is to intentionally consider what kinds of relationships we want with the river into the future and then to make sure we are telling the stories that get us there.

Contact Us!
Send us a note at rvrlife@umn.edu to make suggestions for other places we should look, media to track, and stories to tell!
River Life in Video
Come Along for a Water Walk with Kare11 and River Life, and see Gifts at Work: The Mississippi River by the University of Minnesota Foundation
The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change
For more information about our John E. Sawyer Seminar Spring Symposium “The Once and Future River: Imagining the Mississippi in an Era of Climate Change” which took place at Northrop on April 8-10, 2015, please visit the symposium web page.