University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota

#TBT: Fifty-five Years Ago, Minnesota Had Few Tools to Respond to River Pollution

There has been a lot written recently about impending changes at the Environmental Protection Agency under the new Presidential administration.  A quick look into the entries at the Minnesota Historical Society’s MNopedia shows that pollution of the Mississippi River was a substantial public concern in 1962-63, nearly a decade before the 1970 establishment of the EPA through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

The MNopedia article “Mississippi River Oil Spill, 1962-1963,” by Joseph Manulik (who was a U of MN Honors student when he wrote the piece) details how two spills, both on the Minnesota River, wreaked havoc downstream.  Manulik makes the clear point that the State of Minnesota had poor policy tools to deal with environmental crises.  The spilled oil fouled waterbird habitat as far down the Mississippi as Lake Pepin, killing thousands of ducks and wrecking the aquatic ecology of the river for nearly 100 miles.  But the only state remedy could not be put into action until a health hazard to humans was declared.  At this point in history, very few people ventured near the river, so the state was left with makeshift remedies, including a short-lived involvement of the National Guard. There was no recourse in state or federal law to hold the industrial sites responsible for the oil spills responsible for the accidents.

There is, of course, a lot of posturing and exaggeration about policy directions at the EPA.  But it does seem clear that there is little appetite to return to a pre-EPA world, where rivers burned, waterfowl suffocated, and polluters were held unaccountable.


#TBT: River History Found in all Sorts of Places

It probably shouldn’t be surprising, but it is, how many places the Mississippi River’s history shows up.  The fantastic, and fun, Open Parks Network site contains over 200,000 images of items relating to the nation’s over 400 national park units.  OF COURSE they would have great Mississippi River materials on the site!

Actually, not so much, at least coming from a simple “Mississippi River” keyword search.  Of course, there are many other ways to search for river-related items, but I just thought I would share one thing I did find.  Here’s an image that is part of the collections of the Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site

The power dam and lock at Keokuk Iowa was a nationally-significant power development when it went online right before World War 1.  It’s hardly surprising that Sandburg would have had this image in his files. What stories about the river and its people does this image elicit? What questions can we ask of it that inform how we think about the river now, a century later?

#TBT: Minnesota Digital Library

Maybe it goes against the “rules” of Throwback Thursday as a trope (meme?) to write about places that have historical materials rather than places or things that are historic.  Nevertheless, I just have to highlight the materials in the Minnesota Digital Library.

If you’re inclined to go to this site, be forewarned: it’s a time warp.  A couple of weeks ago, I was looking around on the site, having typed “Mississippi River” into the search window.  I honestly didn’t think two hours had passed that fast; at least that’s what I tried to explain when I showed up late for a meeting.

Maps, historic photographs, images of historical documents; you name it, it can be found on this site.  One of the great advantages of the site as a platform is that it encompasses the collections of many libraries and archives across the state.  The range of sources and the rich metadata combine to make this an invaluable stop for “river students” of all sorts.

If any of you end up searching these collections and are interested in writing about what you find, let me know.  The Open Rivers journal is always looking for good articles!


#TBT: Mississippi River is Central in Early Statehood Racial Controversy

In 1860, two years after Minnesota became a state and a year before the Civil War would close the Mississippi as an avenue of regional transportation, the Eliza Winston case rocked the village of St. Anthony (now part of Minneapolis). Eliza Winston, an African-American slave, was brought north by her “owners,” a Mississippi family who had come north to escape the heat and humidity of the Southern summer.  As detailed in this article in the invaluable online encyclopedia MNopedia, Eliza Winston connected with influential white and African American community members and sued for her freedom, since slavery was illegal in Minnesota.  Although her suit was successful, she faced mob violence from members of the community who felt that interference with another person’s “property” was a violation of social order.  Under the threat of pro-slavery violence, Eliza Winston was spirited away from where she had been staying with abolitionist sympathizers.

Although this is not a story of water management or the direct impact of the Mississippi River on the city’s material landscape, it nevertheless reiterates the many ways in which the river runs through our history, our stories, and our politics.

#TBT: The Mississippi River in African American Experience

The impact of the Mississippi River on the culture, history, and experience of African Americans is, like the river itself, long, deep, complex, and unlikely ever to be fully explored.  Indeed, I think it’s safe to say that it’s relatively easy to form a superficial opinion, for example about “Old Man River” as a song or the Mississippi as part of the Underground Railroad, that then interferes with greater understanding.

Today’s image comes from the Earl S. Miers River Photograph Collection of the Tennessee State Library and Archives.  The metadata places the image as having been made around 1900, at a point when the Mississippi Delta region was home to thousands, if not millions of African American farm workers.

The Miers Collection, in turn, was accessed through the search tools available at the Umbra Search  African American History web site.  Umbra Search is developed by the Givens Collection of African American Literature at the University of Minnesota Libraries, with Penumbra Theater.  The name honors the Umbra Society, a group of writers in the 1960s who helped create the Black Arts Movement.  To date, the Umbra Search platform has over 500,000 digital items, gathered from over 1,000 holdings.

Projects like Umbra Search bring the history and experiences of African Americans to research on the contested meanings of water in the United States.  I found the image shown below by typing “Mississippi River” into the Umbra Search search bar and paging quickly through the nearly 1,000 results that popped up.  Given the breadth and scope of collections like those contained in Umbra Search, scholars and others who are serious about the ways water has been a part of American life have no excuses to tell monochromatic water stories any more.

Photo “Mississippi River People” from the Earl S. Miers River Photograph Collection, Tennessee State Library and Archives.

#TBT: “River Therapy”

We’ve maybe all heard of “retail therapy,” where a good shopping trip helps take your mind off your troubles.  As Tuesday’s post described, our current times are full of uncertainty, with lots of things that were formerly thought of as settled, now a bit up in the air.  As an antidote, I offer you this cyanotype image of the Upper Mississippi, made by Henry Bosse roughly 130 years ago:

The image shows wingdams jutting into the river, early efforts by the Army Corps of Engineers to manage the river’s depth and facilitate commercial navigation.  The location, near the short-lived town of Nininger, MN, is in Dakota County, between St. Paul and Hastings, MN.

A restful image, indeed.


#TBT: 2016, when we could no longer see water problems as “just” science or engineering

It is arguable that water issues have never been “just” a matter for science and engineering, but 2016 certainly marks a turning point: the biggest water stories in the past year cannot be fully understood without broad understanding of the political, social, economic, indeed, cultural, dimensions that they raise.

Writing in Circle of Blue, Keith Schneider’s year-end summary illustrates a number of points that clarify how water issues have grown to encompass important new perspectives.  The two biggest water stories in the United States, the crises at Flint MI and Standing Rock ND, both illustrate failures of the old ways in which water has been managed as well as the emergence of new voices, coalitions, and social movements to seek broad-based structural change.  Related to these headline stories, Schneider sees patterns of changing investment in multi-billion dollar water infrastructure projects, “stranded assets” as global energy sources shift, and emerging civic opposition to mismanaged water projects as trends taking place across the globe.  Furthermore, he notes how drought has ravaged countries and economies on nearly every continent.  In the U.S., we tend to hear only about California’s drought; similar conditions in Zimbabwe, along the Mekong, and in India are equally dire.

Closer to home, Brett Walton writes that water affordability has become a “new Civil Rights movement in the United States.”  Again, Flint and Standing Rock have grabbed the headlines, but across much of the country water rates have risen much faster than other segments of the economy, putting stress on low income families particularly in the Midwest and New England.  With water infrastructure repair bills estimated in the trillions coming up in the next decade or so, the stage is set for ongoing debate.

Both of these stories really deserve to be read carefully, and the myriad links and references followed thoroughly.  Together, they set a stage for innovative research, education and policy development that is much more inclusive than we have previously seen.  Citizen involvement in water governance will have to grow and evolve, perhaps through traditional means such as public meetings and community activism, perhaps through forms not yet imagined.  Water is life, and if we are going to understand how and by whom it is managed, there is a sea change of awareness and action needed.


#TBT: Headwaters Dams on the Mississippi River

In the dead of winter, the Mississippi River in the Twin Cities appears sluggish, barely moving under a thin sheet of ice or snow.  Water continues to course over St. Anthony Falls, certainly, and the patterns of ice and falling water provide beautiful studies for those hardy enough to go outside and study them closely.

Over a century ago, the river would often hardly flow at all in winter, with precipitation falling as snow that stayed put where it fell rather than running off into the river.  Low flows were a problem for millers at St. Anthony, of course, since the mills operated on a combination of hydropower and electricity generated through other means.  Beginning in the early 1880s, the Army Corps of Engineers constructed dams on several of the headwaters lakes on the Mississippi River, holding back water and releasing it during autumn and early winter to allow a steady supply of water at the Falls.

MNopedia, the online encyclopedia of Minnesota history developed by the Minnesota Historical Society, has an informative article on the headwaters dams.  The article mentions, but does not emphasize, the fact that the dams flooded villages and rice beds that had been inhabited and used by Ojibwe people, and that disputes over compensation and eventual relocation added to the whole long sordid history of treaty dealings between the United States and Indian nations.

The point of bringing these matters up is that we often have to understand developments far afield, and well in the past, to fully grasp what is going on immediately in front of us.  The water flowing over the concrete apron at St. Anthony today is the result of dozens, if not hundreds, of contingent, specific decisions made at remote times and places.  It’s a truism to historians, but a revelation to many others that “things didn’t have to turn out the way they did.”  By the same token, our future courses are not inevitable either.

#TBT: Chicago, 1908, Water

November 3, 2016Patrick NunnallyThrowback ThursdayComments Off on #TBT: Chicago, 1908, Water

Some of us have heard a lot about Chicago and 1908 over the past few weeks, that year being, until last night, the most recent time the Cubs won the World Series.

Here, in honor of last night’s win, is a view of the city from that year.  Notice parkland along the lake, and also the contrast between the armature of parks laid out for the 1892 World’s Fair, all in rectilinear patterns, and the fact that rivers are not included in the park system.  The north branch of the Chicago River, to the right, appears more or less to go through the city on it’s “natural” course.  By contrast, the south branch already shows signs of being re-engineered to carry waste away from Lake Michigan and down the Illinois River to the Mississippi.

Of course, there’s a LOT more that could be said about that little bit of folly!


Photo from

#TBT: The Harahan Bridge in Memphis: A Century of Crossings

October 27, 2016Patrick NunnallyThrowback ThursdayComments Off on #TBT: The Harahan Bridge in Memphis: A Century of Crossings

It’s cheating, I suppose, to post a Throwback Thursday blog where someone else did all the work, but I’m in Memphis today with the annual meeting of the Mississippi River Network.  So when I saw that the local paper, the Commercial Appeal, had put together a slide show of the Harahan Bridge over the years, the opportunity was too good to miss.

The Harahan Bridge was opened in 1916 to increase the rail capacity crossing the Mississippi at Memphis.  Over the years it carried cars and trucks as well, until the roadways closed in 1949.  The northern side roadway is being reconstructed as a bike-pedestrian facility that is expected to open, literally, any day now and to be part of a 10 mile system that will connect the downtowns of Memphis and West Memphis, AR.

When I worked as the Executive Director of Mississippi River Trail, Inc, connecting bike trail projects up and down the Mississippi River, a bike facility on the Harahan Bridge was considered a pipe dream, a fantasy in the “if only someday” category.  Looks like “someday” has arrived!

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